Father of Indian Nation Gandhiji

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Father of Indian Nation Gandhiji

 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, called Mahatma, is the father of our nation.
 He was born on 2 October 1869 at Porbandar in Gujarat as the son of Diwan Karamchand and his fourth wife ‘Putilibai’.
 In 1883, at the age of 14, he married Kasthurba Later he went to England to study law.
 In 1893 he went to South Africa to practice law.
 After his studies in England Gandhiji began his practice as a lawyer in Bombay and Rajkot.
 He was subjected to racial discrimination and organized Natal Indian Congress in 1894. There he started a weekly, Indian opinion 1904.
 Gandhiji experimented the weapon Satyagraha for the first time in South Africa in September 1906 to protest against the Asiatic Ordinance issued against the Indians in Transvaal.

 Gandhiji’s first imprisonment was in 1908 at Johannesburg in South Africa.
 In 1899 during the Boer war, Gandhiji organized Indian Ambulance Corps for the British.
 Gandhiji was humiliated and ousted from Peter Marits Burg Railway Station in South Africa.
 Gandhiji became a Brahmachari in 1906.
 Gandhiji started Tolstoy Farm South Africa in 1910.
 Gandhiji started the Phoenix Settlement in Durban.
 Gandhian Era in Indian politics is from 1915 -1948.
 He returned to India on 9th January 1915, leaving South Africa forever. January 9 is observed as ‘Pravasi Bharatiya Divas’ to commemorate this.
 Gandhiji’s first Satyagraha in India was for the right of Indigo workers in Champaran in 1917.

 Gandhiji’s first fast was in 1918 in connection with the strike of mill workers in Ahmedabad.
 He started the Satyagrahasrama on the banks of Sabarmati river in Ahmedabad in 1917.
 In 1918 he started two weeklies – Young India in English and Navjeevan in Gujarati.
 Gandhiji abandoned his title Kaiser -i-Hind in protest against Jallianwalabagh Massacre (1919)
 Gandhiji’s first National Movement was organized against the Rowlat Act in 1919.
 Gandhiji launched the Non-Co-operation Movement on August 1, 1920, which caused the violent incident at Chauri Chaura in UP. This incident initiated Gandhiji to suspend the movement in 1922.
 Gandhiji renounced worldly pleasures and became a symbol of the half-naked villager in 1920.

 The only Congress session presided over by Gandhiji was the one which held at Belgaum in 1924.
 Gandhiji started his historic Dandi March on 12 March 1930 related to the Salt Satyagraha.
 Gandhiji participates in the Second Round Table Conference in London in 1931 August.
 With the aim of eradicating untouchability Gandhiji founded the All India Harijan Samaj in 1932.
 Gandhiji started his journey for Harijan upliftment from the Wardha Ashram in Maharashtra.

 Gandhiji called low-class people as ‘Harijan’ which means ‘sons of God’.
 He started the weekly Harijan in 1933.
 Gandhi-Irwin pact was signed on 5 March 1931.
 Gandhiji was associated with the Vaikom and Guruvayur Sathyagraha in Kerala.
 Gandhiji called the Temple Entry Proclamation a wonder of the Modern Age.
 Pattabhi Sitaramayya Gandhiji’s candidate for the Presidentship of INC was defeated by Subash Chandra Bose.

 Gandhiji called Subhash Chandra Bose the Patriots’, Patriot
 Winston Churchill called Gandhiji a ‘‘Half naked Seditious Fakir.
 The name ‘Gurudev’ was given to Tagore by Gandhiji
 Tagore called Gandhiji ‘Mahatma’.
 ‘Wardha’ scheme of education was the basic education policy formulated by Gandhiji.
 In 1940 Gandhiji started Individual Satyagraha and selected Vinoba Bhave and Nehru for that.
 In 1942 August 9 Gandhiji started the Quit India Movement and gave the call ‘Do or Die’.
 Gandhiji called the Cripps Mission (1942) ‘‘a postdated cheque on a drowning bank’’.
 Gandhiji was assassinated by Raghuram Vinayak Godse on 30 January 1948 at the Birla house in Delhi. He died at 5: 17 pm. ‘He Ram, He Ram’ was his last words.

 Godse used an Italian Beretta Pistol to shoot at Gandhiji.
 Gandhiyum Godsey is a book written by N.K. Krishnavarier.
 ‘Mem Nadhuram Godse Bolthai’ is a play written by Pradeep Dalvi to humiliate Gandhi.
 After the assassination, The R.S.S was banned in 1948 February 4.
 Narayan Dathathrya Apte was hanged to death along with Godse on the Gandhi Assassination case.

 French Novelist who wrote the biography of Gandhiji was Romain Rolland.
 Medal Slaiduin a British woman became a follower Gandhi and came to be known as Meera Ben.
 The original autobiography of Gandhiji written in the Gujarati language was ‘Sathya na Prayogo’.
 Liberty or Death written by Patrick French deals with antagonism in Gandhi’s life.
 Gandhiji called his hanging clock my little dictator.
 ‘Ente Gurunathan’ poem written by Vallathol Narayana Menon speaks about Gandhiji.

 ‘That’s my mother’ Gandhiji said these words about Bhagavatgita.
 Gandhiji’s political guru was Gopalakrishna Gokhale.
 Gandhi’s prisoner is a book written by Uma Dupfeli Mistri, daughter of Gandhi’s son, Manilal.
 Harilal, Manilal, Ramdas, and Devdas were Gandhiji’s four sons.
 ‘I follow Mahatma’ is a book written by K.M.Munshi.
 ‘Unto This Last’ of John Ruskin greatly influenced Gandhiji
 R.K. Narayan wrote ‘Waiting for the Mahatma’.

 ‘A week with Gandhi, ‘Gandhi and Stalin and Life of Mahatma Gandhi are the books written by Fischer.
 Gandhiji grandson Thushar Gandhi led the second Dandi March from March 12 – April 17, 2005, on the 75th anniversary of Dandi March.
 Gandhiji’s autobiography ‘‘My Experiments with Truth’ was written in 1922 while he was in Jail. It describes his life from 1869 to 1921.
 It was translated into English by Mahadev Desai.
 Leon Tolstoy is considered as the spiritual guru of Gandhiji.
 One of the great dreams of Gandhiji was the establishment of Gram Swaraj. He said ‘‘India lives in villages’’. He started Sewagram Ashram on 30 April 1936.

 Gandhiji said ‘‘ Nonviolence is not one form it is the only form of direct action’’.
 Gandhiji once sarcastically (humorously) called jail ‘‘His Majesty’s Hotel’’.
 ”Generations to come it may scarce believe that such a one as this ever in flesh and blood walked upon this earth”, Einstein said about Gandhiji.

 ‘‘Truth and Non-violence are my Gods’’ Gandhiji
 Untouchability is a crime against God and Mankind Gandhiji.
 ‘‘Swaraj for me means freedom for the meanest of our countrymen’’ – Gandhiji
 ‘‘The light has gone out of our lives and there is darkness everywhere’’ Nehru on the death of Gandhiji.
 ‘‘Non-violence is the law of our species as violence is the law of the brute’’ Gandhiji
 ‘‘Indian culture is neither Hindu, Islam, nor any other wholly. It is a fusion of all’ – Gandhiji
 ‘‘ Non-Co-operation with evil is as much a duty as co-operation with good’’ – Gandhiji
 ‘‘My only hope lies in prayer and answer to prayer’’ – Gandhiji

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